In 2014 the first in Russia research medical center was created in the basis of the three medical centers: Federal State Budget Institution National Medical Research Radiology Center of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation (FSBI NMRRC of the Ministry of Health of Russia). It included: P. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Center, A. Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Center and N.A. Lopatkin Research Institute of Urology and Intervention Radiology.
The objective is to join the efforts of researchers and practitioners in combating cancer, create the conditions for introduction of the newest technologies in treatment of cancer, ensure the breakthrough of Russian science and medical practice in such directions as nuclear medicine. Thanks to merging of capabilities of each institute becoming the branches of FSBI NMRRC of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Russian oncologist now have real opportunity to reach world leaders in this field.
The oncology cluster is headed by the Director of P.Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Center, correspondent member of the RAS, Professor A.D. Kaprin, who is now the general director of FSBI NMRRC of the Ministry of Health of Russia, while still keeping position of head of P.Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Center which is now a branch of the Center.
Nuclear medicine in our country is not a recent development in our country, but a field with the extensive history. Russia is a nuclear state with extensive experience of use of nuclear technologies in different fields of activity. In 1954 the world’s first nuclear power station was put into operation in Obninsk. The development of nuclear technologies in late 1940ies-early 1950ies bexame the basis for appearance of the new field of medicine – nuclear medicine, includig use of radionuclides for diagnostics and treatment. Also in Obninsk in 1958 there was created the Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Scieences of the USSR. In the years of Cold War there was intense development of military application of nuclear industry. Up to 1970ies the level of development of the nuclear medicine of Russia matched that of the USA, Japan and developed European countries. Necessary attention was also paid to use of ionized radiation in research, industry, agriculture, medicine. Up to 1990 20% of worldwide experience in proton therapy belonged to Russia. Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster dealt a major blow to the development of nuclear industry in our country. Even greater problems manifested after the USSR dissolution, painful restructuring of the economy and a range of different crises. And by the start of 21st century there was retardation both regarding level of the equipment and in the area of creation of the radiopharmaceutical drugs. Currently in Russia it is almost impossible to perform andron therapy.
Use of new technologies in oncology provided for great improvement of survival of patients with malignant neoplasms. Another issue is presented by the young patients suffering from cancers, who have to choose between treatment and motherhood, since in the women of childbearing age chemoradiation therapy leads to premature menopause.. One of the main methods to preserve fertility in young women with cancer pathology is the cryonic conservation of genetic material: embryos, oocytes and ovarian tissues. That is why the method of cryonic conservation of ovarian tissue becomes more and more frequent in complex treatment of malignant neoplasms in women.
CyberKnife is the newest radiation therapy accelerator complex which allows to affect pathological lesions (malignant tumors and their metastases, benign tumors, anatomic defects of vascular system, i.e. arterial-venous malformations etc.)
Principle of operation. The apparatus is controlled by powerful computer system, allowing to focus radiation beam in any part of human body with microscopic precision. Thanks to the modern software the system allows to bring necessary doses of radiation to the pathological lesions without damaging surrounding healthy tissues and vital organs, even at the distance of 1 mm from the target.